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Mr. Yang Liu is a seasoned executive with 15 years of experience in an array of industries including technology, finance and investment banking. Mr. Liu served as the Chairman of the board and the Chief Executive Officer of Color Star Technology Co. Ltd, a Nasdaq company, from March 2019 to July 2020. Through a series of acquisitions and dispositions, he successfully transformed the company from a traditional Chinese manufacturer into a global technology company in education and entertainment. He also served as the CEO at Wave Sync Corporation, an OTC technology company from July 2017 to August 2018.
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Characterization of polymer melts in elongational flow is typically performed at constant elongational rate or rarely at constant tensile stress conditions. One of the disadvantages of these deformation modes is that they are hampered by the onset of "necking" instabilities according to the Considère criterion. Experiments at constant tensile force have been performed even more rarely, in spite of the fact that this deformation mode is free from necking instabilities and is of considerable industrial relevance as it is the correct analogue of steady fiber spinning. It is the objective of the present contribution to present for the first time a full experimental characterization of a long-chain branched polyethylene melt in elongational flow. Experiments were performed at constant elongation rate, constant tensile stress and constant tensile force by use of a Sentmanat Extensional Rheometer (SER) in combination with an Anton Paar MCR301 rotational rheometer. The accessible experimental window and experimental limitations are discussed. The experimental data are modelled by using the Wagner I model. Predictions of the steady-start elongational viscosity in constant strain rate and creep experiments are found to be identical, albeit only by extrapolation of the experimental data to Hencky strains of the order of 6. For constant stress experiments, a minimum in the strain rate and a corresponding maximum in the elongational viscosity is found at a Hencky strain of the order of 3, which, although larger than the steady-state value, follows roughly the general trend of the steady-state elongational viscosity. The constitutive analysis also reveals that constant tensile force experiments indicate a larger strain hardening potential than seen in constant elongation rate or constant tensile stress experiments. This may be indicative of the effect of necking under constant elongation rate or constant tensile stress conditions according to the Considère criterion.
Purpose: To investigate several aspects of the Chen and Nath spectroscopic method of determining the dose rate constants of sup 125I and sup 103Pd seeds [Z. Chen and R. Nath, Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 6089-6104 (2010)] including the accuracy of using a line or dual-point source approximation as done in their method, and the accuracy of ignoring the effects of the scattered photons in the spectra. Additionally, the authors investigate the accuracy of the literature's many different spectra for bare, i.e., unencapsulated sup 125I and sup 103Pd sources. Methods: Spectra generated by 14 sup 125I and 6 sup 103Pd seedsmore were calculated in vacuo at 10 cm from the source in a 2.7 Multiplication-Sign 2.7 Multiplication-Sign 0.05 cmsup 3 voxel using the EGSnrc BrachyDose Monte Carlo code. Calculated spectra used the initial photon spectra recommended by AAPM's TG-43U1 and NCRP (National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurements) Report 58 for the sup 125I seeds, or TG-43U1 and NNDC(2000) (National Nuclear Data Center, 2000) for sup 103Pd seeds. The emitted spectra were treated as coming from a line or dual-point source in a Monte Carlo simulation to calculate the dose rate constant. The TG-43U1 definition of the dose rate constant was used. These calculations were performed using the full spectrum including scattered photons or using only the main peaks in the spectrum as done experimentally. Statistical uncertainties on the air kerma/history and the dose rate/history were Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 0.2%. The dose rate constants were also calculated using Monte Carlo simulations of the full seed model. Results: The ratio of the intensity of the 31 keV line relative to that of the main peak in sup 125I spectra is, on average, 6.8% higher when calculated with the NCRP Report 58 initial spectrum vs that calculated with TG-43U1 initial spectrum. The sup 103Pd spectra exhibit an average 6.2% decrease in the 22.9 keV line relative to the main peak
For pressure-driven turbulent channel flows undergoing spanwise system rotation, it has been observed that the absolute vorticity, i.e., the sum of the averaged spanwise flow vorticity and system rotation, tends to zero in the central region of the channel. This observation has so far eluded a convincing theoretical explanation, despite experimental and numerical evidence reported in the literature. Here we show experimentally that three-dimensional laminar structures in plane Couette flow, which appear under anticyclonic system rotation, give the same effect, namely, that the absolute vorticity tends to zero if the rotation rate is high enough. It is shown that this is equivalent to a local Richardson number of approximately zero, which would indicate a stable condition. We also offer an explanation based on Kelvin's circulation theorem to demonstrate that the absolute vorticity should remain constant and approximately equal to zero in the central region of the channel when going from the nonrotating fully turbulent state to any state with sufficiently high rotation.
Microgels have a wide range of possible applications and are therefore studied with increasing interest. Nonetheless, the microgel synthesis process and some of the resulting properties of the microgels, such as the cross-linker distribution within the microgels, are not yet fully understood. An in-depth understanding of the synthesis process is crucial for designing tailored microgels with desired properties. In this work, rate constants and reaction enthalpies of chain propagation reactions in aqueous N-isopropylacrylamide/N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide and aqueous N-vinylcaprolactam/N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide systems are calculated to identify the possible sources of an inhomogeneous cross-linker distribution in the resulting microgels. Gas-phase reaction rate constants are calculated from B2PLYPD3/aug-cc-pVTZ energies and B3LYPD3/tzvp geometries and frequencies. Then, solvation effects based on COSMO-RS are incorporated into the rate constants to obtain the desired liquid-phase reaction rate constants. The rate constants agree with experiments within a factor of 2-10, and the reaction enthalpies deviate less than 5 kJ/mol. Further, the effect of rate constants on the microgel growth process is analyzed, and it is shown that differences in the magnitude of the reaction rate constants are a source of an inhomogeneous cross-linker distribution within the resulting microgel.
The exothermic H + O3 reaction produces OH(v) Meinel band emissions, used to derive mesospheric H concentrations and chemical heating rates. We have remeasured its rate constant to reduce resulting uncertainties and the measurement extend to lower mesospheric temperatures using modern laser techniques. H atoms are produced by pulsed ultraviolet laser trace photolysis of O3, followed by reaction of O(D) with added H2. A second, delayed, frequency-mixed dye laser measures the reaction decay rate with the remaining ozone by laser induced fluorescence. We monitor either the H atom decay by 2 photon excitation at 205 nm and detection of red fluorescence, or the OH(v=9) product time evolution with excitation of the B-X (0,9) band at 237 nm and emission in blue B-A bands. By cooling the enclosed low pressure flow cell we obtained measurements from 146-305 K. Small kinetic modeling corrections are made for secondary regeneration of H atoms. The results fully confirm the current NASA JPL recommendation for this rate constant, and establish its extrapolation down to the lower temperatures of the mesosphere. This work was supported by the NSF Aeronomy Program and an NSF Physics summer REU student grant.
Much of the observed wintertime increase of mortality in temperate regions is attributed to seasonal influenza. A recent re-analysis of laboratory experiments indicates that absolute humidity strongly modulates the airborne survival and transmission of the influenza virus. Here we show that the onset of increased wintertime influenza-related mortality in the United States is associated with anomalously low absolute humidity levels during the prior weeks. We then use an epidemiological model, in which observed absolute humidity conditions temper influenza transmission rates, to successfully simulate the seasonal cycle of observed influenza-related mortality. The model results indicate that direct modulation of influenza transmissibility by absolute humidity alone is sufficient to produce this observed seasonality. These findings provide epidemiological support for the hypothesis that absolute humidity drives seasonal variations of influenza transmission in temperate regions. In addition, we show that variations of the basic and effective reproductive numbers for influenza, caused by seasonal changes in absolute humidity, are consistent with the general timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks observed for 2009 A/H1N1 in temperate regions. Indeed, absolute humidity conditions correctly identify the region of the United States vulnerable to a third, wintertime wave of pandemic influenza. These findings suggest that the timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks is controlled by a combination of absolute humidity conditions, levels of susceptibility and changes in population mixing and contact rates.
A primary goal of nuclear medicine facility design is to keep public and worker radiation doses As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). To estimate dose and shielding requirements, one needs to know both the dose equivalent rate constants for soft tissue and barrier transmission factors (TFs) for all radionuclides of interest. Dose equivalent rate constants are most commonly calculated using published air kerma or exposure rate constants, while transmission factors are most commonly calculated using published tenth-value layers (TVLs). Values can be calculated more accurately using the radionuclide's photon emission spectrum and the physical properties of lead, concrete, and/or tissue at these energies. These calculations may be non-trivial due to the polyenergetic nature of the radionuclides used in nuclear medicine. In this paper, the effects of dose equivalent rate constant and transmission factor on nuclear medicine dose and shielding calculations are investigated, and new values based on up-to-date nuclear data and thresholds specific to nuclear medicine are proposed. To facilitate practical use, transmission curves were fitted to the three-parameter Archer equation. Finally, the results of this work were applied to the design of a sample nuclear medicine facility and compared to doses calculated using common methods to investigate the effects of these values on dose estimates and shielding decisions. Dose equivalent rate constants generally agreed well with those derived from the literature with the exception of those from NCRP 124. Depending on the situation, Archer fit TFs could be significantly more accurate than TVL-based TFs. These results were reflected in the sample shielding problem, with unshielded dose estimates agreeing well, with the exception of those based on NCRP 124, and Archer fit TFs providing a more accurate alternative to TVL TFs and a simpler alternative to full spectral-based calculations. The data provided by this paper should assist